Endemic Animals in Ethiopia

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Ethiopia is among the few countries in the world that have unique fauna. Endowed with extensive and unique environmental conditions, Ethiopia is truly an ecologically diverse country that is home to several endemic wild animals. Endemic animals in Ethiopia include the

  • Gelada Baboon
  • Walia Ibex
  • Mountain Nyala
  • Ethiopian Wolf

Gelada Baboon

The Ethiopian Highlands, particularly Semien Mountains to the north and west of the Rift Valley, is considered to be the finest place to spot gelada Monkeys. They are also referred as the sacred heart due to the naked patch of bright skin on their chests.


A Gelada baboon.

The geladas are more striking in appearance than the common baboons with a thick silky brown hair. These baboons are only found in the Ethiopian highlands. The most interesting fact about these endemic animals in Ethiopia is that they are the only primates whose primary source of food is grass.

Walia Ibex

Female Walia Ibex

A female Walia Ibex.

Confined only in Afro-alpine habitat of Semien Mountain National Park in Ethiopia, the Walia Ibex (wild goat) is another endemic animal of Ethiopia. Walia Ibex are easily distinguished by their striking colour and magnificent arching horns. This wildlife species is typically active early in the morning and late in the afternoon, with a distinct resting period in the middle of the day.

Mountain Nyala

Mountain Nyala at Bale Mountains National Park

A mountain Nyala at Bale Mountains National Park.

The mountain Nyala is an attractively marked antelope, with a greyish to chestnut-brown coat body. These species are also considered as one of the endemic animals in Ethiopia. These antelopes are found in high altitude woodland of Bale Mountains National Park in central Ethiopia.

It is one of the largest antelope, standing over 4 feet at the shoulder. Males have a set of curled horns while females have no horns, but rather long necks and large ears, which are very conspicuous.

Ethiopian Wolf

The Ethiopian Wolf in the Afro-alpine region of Bale Mountains

An Ethiopian Wolf in the Afro-alpine region of Bale Mountains.

Another endangered species is the Ethiopian wolf, which is found only in Ethiopia’s Bale Mountains. The Ethiopian wolf resembles a coyote. It is the only wolf species found in Africa. In most cases, you will find this wolf in a pack of 3-13 adults.


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